Appendix Table 1a

Proportions of geologic materials in the original mix of the Baianus Sinus seawater concrete

Raw materials of Roman seawater concrete (de Architectura 2.6.1, 5.12.2-3)Unit weight (kg/m3)
calx
dry lump quicklime880*
pulvis
Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, poorly consolidated, volcanic ash pozzolan~1000–1200
tofus or Flegrean Tuff
Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, lithified tuff, decimeter-sized aggregate~1200–1400,
BAI.06.03 concrete, from drill core1494
  • * Krukowsky (2010), Brune (2011).

  • Papakonstantinou et al. (2012).

  • CTG Italcementi Laboratories.